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How to care for a wound

How to care for a wound


Skin wounds that do not heal, heal slowly, or heal but tend to recur are called chronic wounds. Many causes of chronic (persistent) skin wounds can include trauma, burns, skin cancer, infection, or underlying conditions such as diabetes. Wounds that take a long time to heal require special care.

Causes of chronic wounds

Many causes of chronic skin wounds may include:
Inability to move (pressure wounds or bedsores), continuous local pressure restricting blood flow
major trauma to the skin
Surgery incisions (cuts made during surgery) can become infected and heal slowly
deep burns
underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes or certain types of vascular disease
Certain types of infections, such as Bairnsdale or Buruli ulcers (M. ulcerans)
Nutritional ulcers, a lack of sensation can lead to everyday trauma leading to ulcers - such as diabetic neuropathy and leprosy.

Healing process

The healing process of skin wounds follows a predictable pattern. If one or more stages of healing are interrupted, the wound may not heal. Normal wound healing phases include:
Inflammatory stage - The blood vessels at the site constrict (tighten) to prevent blood loss, and platelets (specialized blood clotting cells) clump together to form a clot. Once the clot is complete, the blood vessels dilate to allow maximum blood flow to the wound. This is why a healed wound feels warm at first and looks red. White blood cells flood the area to destroy microorganisms and other foreign objects. Skin cells multiply and grow on the wound.
Fibroblast stage - Collagen, a protein fiber that gives the skin its strength, begins to grow inside the wound. Collagen growth prompts the edges of the wound to contract and close together. Small blood vessels (capillaries) form at the site to supply blood to the new skin.
Mature stage - the body is constantly adding more collagen and refining the injured area. This can take months or even years. This is why scars fade over time, and why we must take care of wounds for a period of time after they heal.

Barriers to wound healing

Factors that may slow the wound healing process include:
Dead skin (necrosis) - Dead skin and foreign objects can interfere with the healing process.
Infection - Bacterial infections can occur in open wounds. The body fights the infection instead of healing the wound.
Bleeding - Continued bleeding can separate the edges of the wound.
Mechanical injuries - for example, people who are immobile due to constant pressure and friction are at risk for pressure ulcers.
Diet - Poor food choices can deprive the body of nutrients it needs to heal wounds, such as vitamin C, zinc, and protein.
Medical conditions - such as diabetes, anemia and some vascular diseases that restrict blood flow to the area, or anything that blocks the immune system.
Age - Wounds in older adults tend to take longer to heal.
Medications - Certain medications or treatments used to treat certain diseases may interfere with the body's healing process.
Smoking - Smoking can impair healing and increase the risk of complications.
Varicose veins - restricted blood flow and swelling can cause skin breakouts and persistent ulcers.
Dryness - Air-exposed wounds (such as leg ulcers) are less likely to heal. Various cells involved in healing, such as skin cells and immune cells, require a moist environment.
diagnosis method
The cause of chronic wounds must be determined so that underlying factors can be controlled. For example, if a leg or foot ulcer is caused by diabetes, your doctor will check your blood sugar level control and may recommend that you see a podiatrist to prevent future ulcers from recurring. In the case of ulcers caused by varicose veins, surgery on the veins may be necessary. Diagnosis of chronic wounds may include:
Physical examination including examination of wounds and assessment of local nerve and blood supply
Medical history, including information about chronic illnesses, recent surgeries, and medications you regularly take or have recently taken
blood and urine tests
wound biopsy
The wound is cultured for any (pathogenic) pathogenic microorganisms.
self-care advice
Guided by your doctor, but self-care suggestions for slow-healing wounds include:
If possible, do not take medications that interfere with the body's natural healing process. For example, anti-inflammatory drugs, such as over-the-counter aspirin, can block the action of immune system cells. Ask your doctor for a list of medications to avoid in the short term.
Make sure to eat right. Your body needs good food to facilitate the healing process.
Include foods rich in vitamin C in your diet. The body needs vitamin C to make collagen. Eating fresh fruits and vegetables every day also provides your body with other nutrients essential for wound healing, such as vitamin A, copper, and zinc. It may help supplement your diet with extra vitamin C.
Keep the wound bandaged. Wounds heal faster if kept warm. Change dressings as quickly as possible. Exposing a wound to air will lower its temperature and may slow healing for a few hours.
Do not use antiseptic creams, lotions or sprays on chronic wounds. These preparations are toxic to cells involved in wound repair.
Exercise regularly, as it increases blood flow, improves overall health, and speeds wound healing. Ask your doctor for advice on appropriate exercise.
Manage any chronic disease, such as diabetes.
do not smoke.
go to the doctor
Check your wound regularly. See your doctor right away if you have any symptoms, including:
increased pain
wound pus or discharge
If you have any concerns about the wound, be sure to see your doctor.
What are the different types of open wounds?

What are the different types of open wounds?


What are the different types of open wounds?
Some of the main types of open wounds include:


A laceration is a wound that tears the skin and may also cause damage to the underlying tissue. Unlike abrasions, there is no skin loss. Blunt trauma is a common cause of lacerations.
Deep or long lacerations may require stitches by your doctor. If your wound continues to bleed, seek immediate medical evaluation as medical treatment is required.

Puncture Wound

A puncture is a hole in the skin, usually through all layers of the skin. It is usually caused by mishandling or stepping on sharp objects such as needles and nails. A bite by an animal may also be considered a stab wound. If you suffer a stab wound of any kind, go to an urgent care center right away.
Metal contact and animal bites pose an extremely high risk to your health. Metal tends to be dirty or rusted, and animal bites can carry bacteria or viruses from the animal's mouth directly into your body. These can quickly lead to serious infections if not handled properly by a doctor.

Burn Wound

Burns are caused by overexposure to heat, electricity, radiation, lasers, or chemical agents. You can treat minor burns at home, but non-minor burns require immediate medical attention.
Burns can be classified according to the extent of the injury:
First-degree burns affect only the epidermis and may cause redness and pain.
Second degree burns affect the epidermis and dermis and may cause blisters.
Third-degree burns extend into the fatty layer under the skin and may damage nerves.


Also known as a skin tear, an avulsion is a deep break in the skin that tears it away from the underlying tissue. This type of wound is usually more severe and extensive. Traffic accidents and machine injuries are common causes of skin avulsions.
When an avulsion affects a large area of skin, doctors often view skin grafting as part of the treatment and reconstruction process.
Fundamentals of trauma care management2

Fundamentals of trauma care management2


Basic wound care management is an area that requires significant resources in any medical facility. The injury for every surgery and every treatment, and any circumstances that cause injury, will depend on the ability to provide effective wound care. There are many ways to manage basic wound care and reduce follow-up for infections and long hospital stays, both of which require the resources of medical institutions. By further understanding basic wound care management, we can have a domino effect on the efficiency of other areas of any facility. Basic wound care management has several goals that are achieved through a variety of means.

The purpose of wound care

If a wound does require specialized treatment based on its cause and condition, there are some basic steps that can be followed in all wound care.
1. Remove damaged tissue that can't be repaired.
2. Clean and disinfect the area.
3. Measures to prevent further damage.
4. Identify the source of the wound and determine the extent of care (acute or chronic) required.
5. Create conditions that allow healing without complications.
6. Ensure ideal healing conditions for wound dressings.
Having staff trained in the latest techniques for treating and dressing wounds can save patients time to heal and prevent slow healing wounds from having an unnecessary negative impact on patients' lives. When it comes to chronic wound care management, hyperbaric oxygen therapy should be considered if the type of wound is known to respond to it.

Overview of basic wound care management

Because basic wound care management is an important aspect of follow-up care, there is a lot of research on how to improve healing speed and prevent anything that further slows healing or causes complications. It is therefore vital that all staff concerned are kept informed of any and all new information. This is easier to do by building relationships and partnerships with institutions that specialize in wound care.
There is a degree of assumption that wound care management and risk involves extensive treatment or the use of additional methods. New information and methodologies should therefore be implemented with supervision and caution.

Assess the cause of injury and damage control

This step is critical to the long-term effects of the wound. The less attention that is given here, the more tedious or erratic the treatment becomes. Only in an emergency would you neglect the care and attention to remove the damaged tissue, and at the same time pay attention to the nerves and observe the extent of the damage. In some cases, the cause is not immediately obvious, so it takes time to establish information through diagnosis and evaluation.
An important factor in slow wound healing is the thin film that forms on the surface of the wound, which allows microbes to grow, making any wound detrauma important. Sometimes this step is not included because the damaged tissue is not always obvious.
It is also necessary to examine the cause of swelling. Edema can be a potential problem that requires urgent attention. A normal swelling of the wound may require treatment before the wound closes and further treatment can be carried out, but the cause of the swelling should be identified.
Cleaning and disinfection
Materials used to clean the wound and bring the area around the wound into a state that can be properly treated have an impact on healing rates. Depending on the cause of the wound, the material can moderate or cause combustion. The latest information on wound care may mean that for some wounds, this step can help kick-start the healing process. One example is the topical foam treatment of certain ulcers. At the very least, knowing the cause and your patient information can prevent an unmanageable emergency.
This procedure is repeated each time a dressing change is required, which is also a way to monitor the condition of the wound. Continuing treatment with the right materials will increase healing time -- when the patient is under your care, all efforts should be made to ensure that the patient or the patient's caregivers are adequately equipped and trained to perform this step.
Trauma outpatient treatment
The area usually needs to be anaesthetized at least initially -- your doctor may prescribe pain medication or local anesthesia for this procedure. Antibiotics can also be prescribed by a doctor if there are any signs of infection, or as a preventive measure when certain conditions are effective. Oxygen therapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy have been shown to be effective in wound healing. Increasing the amount of oxygen in the blood helps healing to occur from an internal channel, rather than just through local application.
The wound closed
There are several ways to suture the skin around a wound. Treatment will depend on the condition of the wound and sometimes on what is available. For example, adhesives can be used as a temporary method if suitable stitching materials are not available. Patients may want to know which methods heal with the least amount of scar, and new methods need to be studied. There are some exciting discoveries in this area.
Wound dressing
Wound dressings themselves are a big topic, and there are many ways to improve them. It has this effect on wound care. Almost all healing can be delayed or interrupted by improper bandaging.
Dermlin Wound Healing Dressings are a good choice.
Dress appropriately
Every little detail matters when dressing a wound, and tightening (affecting blood flow to the wound) and drying (conditions around the wound need to change at each stage of healing) are details that both patients and caregivers will benefit from. With staff on site, their first priority is to take the time to "upskill" patients and their care providers with all the right methods and information, which is the kind of care that patients will thank their healthcare providers for.
There is a method for layering wound dressings with different materials depending on the nature of the wound, how wet or dry it is kept, and how topical it is treated.
1. Usually, you need a first layer that won't stick to the wound or absorb any topical ointment.
2. Special care should be taken in bandaging wounds around joints and skin, as there is movement in these areas during the day.
3. Patients need to be informed of signs of infection, especially if a wound needs to be dressed.
How Scraping Heals

How Scraping Heals


Topic overview

Most scrapes heal well with home remedies without scarring. Minor abrasions can be uncomfortable, but usually heal within 3 to 7 days. The larger and deeper the abrasion, the longer it will take to heal. Large, deep abrasions may take 1 to 2 weeks or more to heal.
It is common for a small amount of fluid to flow or ooze when you scratch. This exudate usually disappears gradually and stops within 4 days. Drainage is not a problem as long as there are no signs of infection.

Recovery process

How an abrasion heals depends on the depth, size, and location of the abrasion. Whether the scratch heals or scabs does not affect the healing time or the amount of scarring.
When scraping removes the outer layer of skin, new skin forms at the bottom of the wound and the wound heals from the bottom up. This scratch looks pink and raw at first. As it heals, the new skin sometimes turns yellow and can be confused with pus.
When scraping removes all layers of skin, new skin forms around the edges of the wound, and the wound heals from edge to middle. This type of abrasion looks white at first, and fat cells may be seen. This type of abrasion takes longer to heal.


During the healing process, some scrapes will form a scab. A well-formed scab protects the abrasion from further damage and infection. Once a scab forms, the scratched area usually remains dry and does not ooze fluid.
A scab that forms on an active area, such as a joint, may rupture and a few drops of clear, yellowish to pink fluid may ooze from the wound. A cracked scab can be uncomfortable, and infection can develop under the scab.
The scab usually shrinks and falls off as new skin forms under the scab.
During the healing process, the scab may accidentally rub off, causing the wound to start bleeding again. Treat the wound and protect the area so the healing process can resume.

No scab

Some scrapes heal without a scab.
As it heals, the abrasion may remain moist and pink and ooze fluid or a small amount of blood. Over time, the area will turn pink and shiny as new skin forms. This usually occurs when the abrasion is covered with a bandage and washed regularly with soap and water to remove the scabbed tissue.
If the scrape is likely to be dirty or infected, or doesn't have a scab, it's best to wrap the scrape with a bandage and let it heal without a scab. This healing process requires more treatment, such as washing the scabbed tissue and dressing the abrasions regularly.
Fundamentals Of Trauma Care Management

Fundamentals Of Trauma Care Management


Burns are tissue damage caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, radiation, or the sun. Nearly half a million people seek medical care each year for accidental burns. First-degree burns and most second-degree burns can be cured with home remedies. Third-degree burns can be life-threatening and require specialized medical attention.

What are burns?

Burns occur when heat, chemicals, sunlight, electricity, or radiation damage skin tissue. Most burns happen by accident. There are burns of varying degrees. Your healthcare provider determines the severity (extent) of the burn based on the depth of the burn and the amount of skin affected. Burns can be painful. Burns can lead to infection if left untreated.

How common are burns?

Nearly half a million people visit emergency rooms each year for burns. Children are at high risk of accidental burns. Every day, more than 300 children receive emergency treatment for burns.

Who might get burned?

Accidental burns can happen to anyone, but children, teens, and the elderly are at the highest risk. These age groups are more prone to burns from cooking, such as splashing boiling water on the skin. Children and teens are also more likely to mess around with lighters, matches and fireworks or get sunburned.

What are the types of burns?

Health care providers classify burns by severity. Your provider will assess the extent of the skin damage. Burns include:
First-degree burns are mild (like most sunburns). The top layer of the skin (epidermis) becomes red and painful, but usually does not blister.
Second-degree burns affect the top and bottom layers of the skin (dermis). You may experience pain, redness, swelling, and blistering.
Third-degree burns affect all three skin layers: epidermis, dermis, and fat. Burns also destroy hair follicles and sweat glands. Because third-degree burns damage nerve endings, you may not feel pain in the burn area itself, but near the burn area. Burned skin may be black, white, or red with a leathery appearance.

What causes burns?

Many things can cause burns. Heat sources, including fire, hot liquids, steam, and contact with hot surfaces, are the most common causes of burns. Other reasons include exposure to:
Chemicals such as cement, acid or drain cleaners.
Sun (UV or UV).
What are the signs of burns?
Burn symptoms vary depending on the severity or extent of the burn. Symptoms usually get worse in the first few hours or days after the burn. Burn symptoms include:
White or burnt (black) skin.

How are burns diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will examine the burn to determine the extent or severity. This process involves estimating the percentage of the body affected by the burn and its depth. Your provider may classify burns as:
Minor: First- and second-degree burns that cover less than 10% of the body are considered minor and rarely require hospitalization.
Moderate: Second-degree burns that cover about 10% of the body are classified as moderate. Burns to the hands, feet, face, or genitals can range from moderate to severe.
Severe: Third-degree burns that cover more than 1% of the body are considered severe.

How are burns managed or treated?

Burn treatment varies by cause and severity. You will need to keep all burns clean and use appropriate bandages/dressings depending on the severity of the wound. Treating a patient's pain is key: improper control can interfere with wound care.
Keep checking the wound for signs of infection and other long-term problems, such as scarring and skin tightening on the joints and muscles, which makes it difficult for them to move.
Treatment for types of burns includes:
First-degree burns: Run cool water over the burn. Do not apply ice. For sunburn, apply aloe vera gel. For thermal burns, apply antibiotic cream and cover lightly with gauze. You can also take over-the-counter pain relievers.
Second-degree burns: Second-degree and first-degree burns are treated similarly. Your healthcare provider may prescribe stronger antibiotic creams that can prevent bacteria and promote healing, like Dermlin wound healing dressings. Elevating the burn site can reduce pain and swelling.
Third-degree burns: Third-degree burns can be life-threatening and usually require a skin graft. Skin grafts replace damaged tissue with healthy skin from another uninjured part of the body. The skin grafted area usually heals on its own. If the person does not have enough skin for the transplant at the time of the injury, a temporary source of graft can be from a deceased donor or an artificial (artificial) source, but the skin will eventually need to be replaced by the person themselves. Treatment also includes extra fluids (usually intravenously, intravenously) to keep blood pressure stable and prevent shock and dehydration.
Bedsores (pressure ulcers) solutions

Bedsores (pressure ulcers) solutions


Your doctor may examine your skin carefully to determine if you have a pressure sore, and if so, assign a stage to the wound. Staging helps determine the best treatment for you. You may need a blood test to assess your overall health.

Question from doctor

Your doctor may ask the following questions:
  1. When did the pressure ulcer first appear?
  2. What is the pain level?
  3. Have you had a pressure ulcer in the past?
  4. How were they managed and what were the outcomes of treatment?
  5. What care assistance can you get?
  6. What are your routines for changing positions?
  7. What diseases have you been diagnosed with and what is your current treatment?What is your daily diet and fluid intake?


Treating pressure ulcers includes reducing pressure on the affected skin, caring for wounds, managing pain, preventing infections, and maintaining good nutrition.

Stress reliever

The first step in treating a pressure sore is to reduce the pressure and friction that cause the sore. Strategies include:
  • Repositioning. If you have bedsores, turn and change positions frequently. How often you reposition depends on your condition and the quality of the surface you're on.
  • Use a support surface. Use mattresses, beds and special cushions to help you sit or lie down in a way that protects your delicate skin.

Cleaning and dressing wounds

  • The care of a pressure ulcer depends on the depth of the wound. Typically, cleaning and dressing a wound includes the following:
  • Cleaning. If the affected skin is not broken, wash with a mild cleanser and pat dry. Clean open sores with water or a saline (salt) solution each time the dressing is changed.
  • Using Dermlin wound healing dressings.

Remove damaged tissue

To heal properly, wounds need tissue that is not damaged, dead, or infected. A doctor or nurse can remove damaged tissue (debridement) by gently irrigating the wound with water or by cutting away the damaged tissue.

Other interventions

Other interventions include:
  • Medications to control pain. NSAIDs—such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, and others) and naproxen sodium (Aleve)—may reduce pain. These are very helpful before or after repositioning and wound care. During wound care, topical pain relievers can also help.
  • Eat a healthy diet. Good nutrition promotes wound healing.


Large bedsores that do not heal may require surgery. One surgical repair method is to use a pad of muscle, skin, or other tissue to cover the wound and cushion the affected bone (flap surgery).
Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Wound Dressings: Making the Right Choice

Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Wound Dressings: Making the Right Choice


Wound care professionals often use a variety of wound treatment strategies to speed tissue recovery and optimize wound healing. A key strategy to achieve these goals is the use of wound dressings. While there are many benefits to using wound coverings during injury resolution, material selection is key to obtaining the desired clinical response.

What is a wound dressing?

Wound dressings are biological, chemical and physical materials applied to the wound site to aid in the healing process. Wound dressings can be used to limit tissue inflammation, prevent microbial overgrowth, prevent tissue infection, and control exudates at the wound site. In addition, some dressings contain materials that stimulate the reepithelialization phase of wound healing, allowing patients treated to recover more quickly.
Depending on the duration of the injury, the nature of the injury, the extent of tissue loss, and the presence of complex factors, wound care professionals will have to consider the best wound coverings for each individual case. Patients respond differently to wound dressings due to unique physiology, making it necessary for their care providers to perform wound care independently.

Wound Dressings

Wound dressing is essential for wound care

Wound dressings play a vital role in the management of wounds from acute to chronic. First, these materials act as a physical barrier between the external environment and the wound, preventing foreign body contamination or infection. In addition, some wound dressings contain antibiotics and antifungals that help prevent harmful infections at the site of injury.
In addition, wound dressings help regulate another key determinant of injury resolution: the level of wound exudate/moisture. Too little or too much exudate on the wound surface has been shown to slow wound healing while damaging the surrounding unaffected tissue (around the wound). The use of the most appropriate wound dressing can reduce the risk of moisture associated wound injury (MASD) in susceptible patients.

Type of wound dressing

Wound dressings can be classified according to their physical, chemical and biological properties. The most effective wound dressing materials are summarized below.
  • Gauze/cloth dressing
  • Transparent dressings
  • Collagen dressing
  • Foam dressings
  • Hydrogel dressing
  • Hydrocolloid dressing
  • Alginate dressing

Gauze/cloth dressing

This is probably the most common and readily available type of wound dressing material. This dressing material can be applied to almost any wound site to cover different tissue injuries, such as cuts, abrasions and bruises. The dressing material can also be used to apply firm pressure to the wound area and to absorb excess wound fluid.
Easy to use dressing
It can be used by anyone with little or no training in wound care
If not replaced regularly, it can become a source of infection
If dressings are changed too frequently, loss of granulation tissue may result
May cause periwound damage when used by inexperienced caregivers

Transparent dressings

The clear wound dressing consists of a polyurethane material that allows oxygen to flow freely around the wound site and also allows moisture/exudate from the site to evaporate. This helps maintain the right amount of moisture needed for optimal healing. Transparent wound dressings can effectively cover donor sites in tissue transplant patients as well as in patients with mild burns and early pressure ulcers.
Reduce friction around the wound area
It is helpful for autolysis debridement
Minimize bacterial contamination at the wound site
Do not apply to excessive exudate laceration wound
May adhere to the wound causing loss of healthy tissue and damage around the wound during removal

Collagen dressing

Collagen dressings are particularly beneficial for patients with chronic, slow-healing wounds because they provide an organic scaffold for wound tissue repair. Collagen dressings contain biomaterials that promote the recruitment and proliferation of new cells at the wound site.
Promotes rapid tissue repair by helping cell proliferation, new blood vessel growth, and removal of necrotic tissue
Expensive wound dressing options
Need expert application and follow up

Foam dressings

In patients with damaged wounds, foam dressings can eliminate cavities or pockets that may have formed as tissue destruction. They also provide non-occlusive wound care for patients with burns, chronic venous ulcers and skin grafts. Foam dressings can also be used to reduce painful wound odors and improve patients' quality of life.
Optimize patient comfort
Not sticky dressings
Can handle a lot of wound exudate
Additional dressings are often required to hold in place
If left too long, the wound may macerate
Does not apply to infected wounds

Hydrogel dressing

Hydrogel dressings can be used to cover painful, necrotic wounds with minimal exudation. They can also form effective wound coverings in patients with burns or infected wound sites.
Effectively treats soft wounds and provides soothing relief
Prevent wound site infection; Optimize wound healing
Do not apply to weeping wounds

Hydrocolloid dressing

These highly absorbable forms of wound dressings can be used to achieve exudate control and optimize wound healing in patients with necrotizing injuries and chronic ulcers. Hydrocolloidal dressings are made from organic materials (such as pectin or methylcellulose) that expand and absorb large amounts of water.
High absorbent dressing type
It is helpful for autolysis debridement
Minimize bacterial contamination at the wound site
Does not apply to infected wounds
May cause more severe tissue damage in areas of the body prone to more friction

Alginate dressing

Alginate represents dressings made from a particular form of brown seaweed. In the presence of wound moisture, these dressings form a hydrophilic gel that allows rapid absorption.
Very absorbent dressings
Autolytic wound debridement is encouraged
Don't depend on
Additional wound dressings are required to hold in place
Excessive moisture absorption may cause the wound to dry out
What Does the Remedial Method of Chronic Wound Have?

What Does the Remedial Method of Chronic Wound Have?


First, clean and cover chronic wounds regularly using wound dressings and bandages. If the wound does not heal after an extended period of time after this treatment, special treatments such as vacuum-assisted closure or skin grafts are used.
If someone's wound is more than eight weeks old and shows no signs of healing, it's considered chronic. Such wounds are usually caused by poor circulation, diabetes or a weakened immune system. Open wounds in the lower leg are also called venous leg ulcers.
In addition to treating underlying diseases and nursing wounds, pain relief is also important. Some people with complex and poorly healed wounds find psychological support helpful, too.

Clean the wound 

Clean the wound frequently when changing dressings, usually using a saline (salt) solution. Overall, however, little is known about the strengths and weaknesses of the various solutions used to clean wounds and how they affect the healing process. It is not clear whether tap water can be used for medical cleaning of wounds.


When treating chronic wounds, doctors or nurses usually remove dead or inflamed tissue. This is called debridement. Tissue is removed using tools such as tweezers, pointed scoop-shaped instruments called curettles or scalpels. Enzyme-based gels are sometimes used to help clean wounds.
A high pressure water jet can also be used to clean the wound. Another form of debridement involves the use of certain maggots (fly larvae) specially bred for medical purposes. Maggots are placed over the wound, either as is or in pouches. They removed dead tissue and fluid from the wound.
Because debridement is often painful, a local anesthetic, such as ointment, is used to numb the wound beforehand. Pain relievers can also be taken before treatment if more severe pain is expected. Larger wounds are sometimes cleaned under general anesthesia. There are not enough good studies on the pros and cons of various debridement techniques to show their effectiveness.Wound dressing
After the wound is clean, cover it with a dressing. Most wounds are kept moist, such as wet compresses. However, the following dressings can be used instead:

  • Dermlin wound healing dressings

  • Gauze

  • Hydrogel dressing

  • Hydrocolloid dressing

  • Dressing containing silver or alginate

  • Foam dressings

Dressings are used to remove excess fluid from the wound and protect it from infection. They usually stay on the wound for a few days. The dressing should be changed if it is evident that the dressing is not absorbing more wound secretions, the site of slip, or fluid from the bandage. It is not possible to determine which type of wound dressing is best for different types of wounds because there are not enough good studies on this.
And some dressings contain substances called growth factors. These hormone-like substances are designed to aid the healing process by promoting the growth of the body's cells. But there aren't enough good studies to say whether using growth factors to treat diabetic foot ulcers and other types of chronic wounds is more effective than conventional wound care.
Honey is traditionally used for wound care. But applying special honey to a wound before dressing it may not do any good. But so far, the effects of using honey to treat leg wounds have only been tested in people with venous leg ulcers.

Pressure socks and pressure bandages

If poor circulation is the cause of a chronic wound, a pressure sock or bandage can help it heal faster. The pressure from the stockings and bandages helps the veins send blood back to the heart and improve circulation.


If a wound is infected with bacteria, it is even less likely to heal. Antibiotics may be considered depending on the severity of the infection. They can be applied to the wound using an ointment or a compress. Preliminary results suggest that wounds in patients with diabetic foot syndrome heal faster as a result. It's not clear if this applies to wounds caused by other underlying diseases.
It's not clear whether antibiotic tablets help: Studies have shown they offer no advantage in wound healing over other treatments.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy

In hyperbaric oxygen therapy, a person with a wound is sent to a special chamber where oxygen is inhaled under high pressure. This is to increase the concentration of oxygen in their blood and improve blood supply to the wound area.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves wound healing in patients with diabetic foot syndrome, research suggests.

Ultrasound and electromagnetic therapy

Ultrasound therapy involves the use of sound waves to treat chronic wounds. Sound waves warm tissue. But ultrasound therapy has not been proven to help wounds heal faster.
Electromagnetic therapy works the same way, using a pillow or cushion with magnets to apply a weak electromagnetic wave to the wound.
Negative pressure wound treatment
In negative pressure wound therapy (also known as vacuum-assisted closure or VAC therapy), the wound is covered with an airtight dressing that is connected to a pump by a thin tube.
The pump continuously draws fluid from the wound, creating negative pressure on the wound surface. The goal is to increase blood flow to the wound. It also helps to keep the wound moist, which also helps improve the healing process.
Some hospitals use pump systems to treat chronic or large open wounds, such as after skin grafts. But they can also be used at home. Negative pressure may be applied to the wound throughout the day or at regular intervals.
However, constantly connected pumps can limit your mobility and create noise. Some people find this annoying. Changing dressings and tubes can also be painful and can cause a small amount of bleeding.
It is not possible to say whether negative pressure wound therapy can help people with chronic wounds, as there is a lack of good research. It's not clear whether shockwaves, ozone or light therapy can help.

Skin graft

If the wound is too large to close on its own, skin grafts are seen as a treatment option. In this process, skin is removed from another part of your body -- usually your thigh -- and grafted onto the wound.
There are also implants made from human cell products and synthetic materials. Studies have shown that these increase the chances of poorly healed venous leg ulcers closing more quickly.
The wound healed completely within six months
Of the 100 patients routinely treated with wound dressings, 40
Sixty-one out of 100 people had skin grafts.
Chronic foot wounds with skin grafts also heal faster than with standard treatment.

What are the pain management options? 

Painful, chronic wounds can be a burden on your daily life and prevent you from getting a good night's sleep. The constant pain can really wear you out and make you feel really low and even depressed after a while.
Drugs such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen can help relieve mild to moderate pain. If they are not effective enough, doctors can prescribe stronger painkillers.
Wound dressings containing ibuprofen may also be used. There's not enough research to show how effective they are at relieving pain from chronic wounds.
People with chronic pain can benefit from psychological support. Psychotherapy for pain management aims to help people cope better with pain in everyday life.

Therapeutic Foods That Promote Wound Healing

Therapeutic Foods That Promote Wound Healing


The food you eat plays an important role in how your body functions on a daily basis. However, many people don't consider how the food they eat affects their body's wound healing process. Eating balanced healing foods can help your body heal faster and more efficiently.
Which food necessities are good for wound healing?
A healthy diet is an essential part of healing wounds and maintaining overall health and well-being. This means you should eat a balanced diet and include all dietary essentials, especially:
  • Protein;
  • Micronutrients (vitamins and minerals);
  • Healthy fats;
  • Carbohydrates .

The role of proteins in wound healing

Protein is arguably one of the most important aspects of any diet, as it is used for nearly every function of your body. In wound healing, proteins are used to repair tissue, help transport oxygen throughout the body and help fight infection.
Therapeutic Foods Containing Protein
Many foods are good sources of protein that can aid in healing. These include:
  • 3 ounces chicken breast = 21 grams of protein
  • 8 ounces of yogurt = 11 grams of protein
  • 1 cup of milk = 8 grams of protein
  • 1 cup of dry beans = 16 grams of protein

Protein needed for wound healing

The amount of protein needed per day depends on the individual, but in general, the average inactive man needs 56 grams per day. Inactive women need to eat an average of 46 grams of protein per day. People with wounds and other medical conditions need to eat more protein each day to help wounds heal. You may consider seeing a wound care professional to help determine the optimal amount you need to heal.

Amino Acids and Wound Healing

Amino acids help build proteins and are used in every cell of our body. Many amino acids play a role in building and repairing tissue, which is important for wound healing.

Therapeutic Foods Containing Amino Acids

Arginine is an amino acid that helps increase blood flow and oxygen to wounds. This increases collagen formation and reduces inflammation. Foods high in arginine include pumpkin seeds, milk, yogurt, and cheese.
Another important amino acid in therapy is glutamine, which stimulates collagen production, regulates nitrogen metabolism, and supports the immune system. Healing foods high in glutamine include chicken, fish, cabbage, spinach, dairy, tofu, lentils, and beans.
Wound care clinics can prescribe wound care supplements that contain these amino acids to ensure you are getting enough.

Micronutrients and Wound Healing

Micronutrients required for a healthy diet include vitamins and minerals. While your body needs a variety of micronutrients, research shows that zinc and vitamins A and C are essential for wound healing. Each of these micronutrients is essential to the body's innate healing process, and when you're not getting enough, you may notice that you start to feel more tired than usual. They also aid in the body's inflammatory response and help produce collagen.
Other notable micronutrients important for wound healing include magnesium, iron, copper, vitamin E and B vitamins.

Therapeutic Foods Containing Micronutrients

While it's best to eat a variety of foods to ensure you're getting all the nutrients your wound needs to heal, some good options include:
  • Foods rich in minerals: oysters, spinach, nuts such as cashews, beans such as peanuts, dairy products, black and lentils, bananas, and fish.
  • Foods rich in vitamins: citrus fruits, bell peppers, whole grains, eggs, dark leafy greens, fish, lean meats, leafy greens, soybeans, almonds, sweet potatoes, and milk.

Carbohydrates and Wound Healing

When some people hear the word "carbs," they automatically think of how carbohydrates are broken down into sugars, such as glucose. However, this glucose comes into play when part of a healthy, balanced diet. Glucose is converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a form of cellular energy used in the healing process.

Fat is also important for wound healing

Healthy fats such as fatty acids, lipids, phospholipids, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid play an important role in maintaining the body and promoting normal wound healing. Research shows that these healthy fats are essential for tissue regeneration and cell metabolism, and contribute to inflammation.

Healing Foods Containing Healthy Fats

Fatty foods that help wounds heal include oily fish, avocados, nuts, seeds, and eggs.

What if healing foods are not enough to heal wounds?

When it comes to nutrition, it's important to understand that everything you eat affects your body and how it functions. Eating a balanced diet ensures that your body is functioning properly and is constantly creating the necessary cells to help carry oxygen throughout the body. If you need help with a balanced diet, especially with wound healing, you may want to consult a registered dietitian or dietitian.
Unfortunately, sometimes individuals must undergo severe dietary restrictions,  which can significantly impact their ability to heal wounds. Underlying health conditions, such as diabetes, can also affect the body's ability to heal. If this is your case, you can seek out a wound clinic to help you plan your recovery.

Hyperbaric wound care and healing foods can help heal wounds

Some people may have trouble balancing essential nutrients to help get oxygen where it's needed. Hyperbaric Wound Care Therapy  delivers oxygen to the body through inhalation and absorption. This ensures your body gets the oxygen it needs to help improve your body's ability to heal wounds. When used in conjunction with a nutritional plan, they can ensure you receive optimal health benefits and help your body heal.


What to Do About Ulcers in the Mouth

What to Do About Ulcers in the Mouth


Mouth ulcers, also known as oral ulcers, aphthous ulcers, or canker sores, are breaks in the tissue lining of your mouth, often along the base of the gums or inside the cheeks or lips, but can form in the floor of the mouth or on the tongue. (Very rarely a mouth ulcer may be the early sign of a cancer.)
They can be painful, annoying, and sometimes embarrassing, interfering with eating, drinking, brushing, and even talking. They are also very common. The pain from a mouth ulcer is caused because the nerves just below the surface of the lining of the mouth become exposed. Luckily most mouth ulcers are easy to treat.
Mouth ulcers are usually temporary, healing on their own within one to two weeks, and harmless (except for pain and inconvenience). If you get mouth ulcers that last longer than three weeks, or they recur regularly, you should seek medical attention as it may be a sign of a more serious problem.


The exact cause of oral ulcers is not known, but there are several factors that are suspected of contributing to their appearance.2
  • Trauma or tissue damage:Damage to the mouth lining is common. Damage from vigorous brushing, orthodontic braces, ill-fitting dentures or biting the inside of your mouth can cause a mouth ulcer to form.
  • Infections:Bacterial, viral or fungal infections may cause mouth ulcers.
  • Stress-related mouth ulcers, aphthous ulcers:Most common in teens, stress-related mouth ulcers will heal within a couple of weeks. Prevention is by resolving stress-related problems or using stress-busting relaxation strategies. Hormonal changes and allergic reactions may also cause mouth ulcers.
  • Foods and drinks:Mouth ulcers may be triggered by acids in certain foods, including oranges, lemons, pineapples, strawberries, tomatoes, and others.
  • Toothpaste or oral rinses:Pastes or rinses that contain sodium lauryl sulfate may contribute to the appearance of mouth ulcers.
  • Vitamin deficiencies:A deficiency of vitamins such as B-12, iron, folate or zinc could also be a cause of mouth ulcers.

Disease-Related Mouth Ulcers

There are some serious causes of mouth ulcers. Mouth ulcers can be symptoms of herpes infection, sex-related infection, inflammatory bowel disease, leukoplakia, gingivostomatitis, oral cancer, oral thrush, celiac disease, and immune disorders.
If mouth ulcers are a symptom of a disease they are usually accompanied by other symptoms in the body, but not always.2 Most mouth ulcers last between one to two weeks. If mouth ulcers do not heal it could be a sign of disease that needs medical attention.

When to See a Healthcare Provider

If mouth ulcers do not heal within two to three weeks it could be a sign of disease that you need medical attention and treatment for. If mouth ulcers recur frequently, are large in size, continue to develop or are painless, see your healthcare provider for advice and a health check-up.


Some treatments will require the removal of the source of the mouth ulcer, such as the treatment of those caused by the disease.
For most mouth ulcers treatment is somewhat effective.1
  • Pain relief creams or ointments such as Orajel or Anbesol
  • Rinsing the mouth with salt water and baking soda
  • Cooling mouth rinses with cold water or applying ice to the ulcer
  • Cool chamomile tea—swish it in your mouth and then swallow

Tips for Prevention

To prevent getting mouth ulcers, use these tactics:
  • Practice good oral hygiene.
  • Eat a healthy diet.
  • Employ gentle brushing for your teeth and gums
  • Get a good intake of vitamin B, C, and zinc
  • Avoid very hot drinks and food
  • Reduce stress
oral ulce


How To Deal With Scald And What Time To Do It Well

How To Deal With Scald And What Time To Do It Well


Everyone has more or less experienced scalding. Scalding is a common situation in life. Many people do not know how to deal with skin scalding and some misconceptions about scalding. So the following article will introduce you to the emergency treatment of skin scalding.

How to deal with scald

1. Photographic processing wound with tap water, no matter what kind of scald it is, we should reduce skin temperature and further damage. Water Photographic processing can also help us reduce pain. The wound did not break and soaked for about 10 minutes. If it is broken, it can’t be soaked to prevent infection. If the scalded area is too large, soak the whole body in the bathtub inside. You can also use a towel to moisten and apply it to the part of the Photographic processing where water cannot be used.
2. don’t try so hard to take off your clothes, so as not to tear blisters after burns, you can use water Photographic processing to cool down first, then carefully take off your clothes.
3. the correct treatment of blisters, if there are blisters burns, do you want to break the specific problem specific analysis, generally do not break, in order to avoid leaving scars, but sometimes blisters larger or in the joint is easy to damage the blisters need to use disinfection needle pierced, if the blisters have been broken, you need to use disinfection cotton swabs to dry the liquid around the blisters.
4. Dress with gauze. Apply some ointment to the scald. Dress with gauze. After a few days to see if there is any improvement, continue to apply some ointment. If infection is found in the wound, a doctor should be consulted.

5. protect the wound, scald place should avoid direct sunlight, wound after don’t touch the water, scald place also don’t too much activity, in order to avoid the wound and gauze friction, increase the wound healing time.
6. Treatment for third-grade scald. When the scald is too serious, clean gauze shall be used to cover or expose the third-grade scald, and then the scald shall be quickly sent to hospital for medical treatment. No drugs shall be applied on the wound surface.


The first injury or scald only damages the skin surface, with slight local redness, no blisters and obvious pain. immediately remove the clothing and socks, soak the wound surface in cold water for half an hour, and then rub the wound surface with sesame oil and vegetable oil.
Second-degree injuries and scalds are dermal injuries, local swelling and pain, and blisters of different sizes. Large blisters can be treated with disinfection needles to break the edge of the blisters and then bandaged with scald ointment. The tightness should be moderate.
Third-degree injuries and scalds are subcutaneous, fat, muscle and bone are all damaged and are gray or reddish brown. At this time, clean cloth should be applied to wrap the wound surface and send it to hospital in time. Do not apply amethyst or ointment on the wound surface, which will affect the observation and treatment of the disease.
For patients with severe injury or scald, shock or respiratory or cardiac arrest may occur during transfer, and artificial respiration or external cardiac massage shall be performed immediately. When the wounded polydipsia, can give a small amount of hot tea or weak brine to take, never drink a large amount of boiled water in a short period of time, resulting in brain edema in the wounded.

Fire and water burns

The principle of fire and water scald treatment is to first remove the heat source, quickly leave the scene, and use various fire extinguishing methods, such as water immersion, water drenching, lying down and tumbling on the spot, immediately take off wet clothes or cut them, drench them with water, and soak the limbs in cold water until the pain disappears. You can also cover the wound with a wet towel or sheet and spray cold water upwards. Don’t break blisters.
Fire and water scald can be divided into first degree scald (erythema, red skin and burning tingling sensation), second degree scald (blistering, blistering on affected part) and third degree scald (necrotizing, peeling off skin). For minor burns in a small area, treatment can be carried out at home. After cleaning the wound surface, Jingwanhong and MEBO Wetting Burn Ointment can be applied externally. For extensive burns, it is advisable to send them to hospital for treatment as soon as possible.
The treatment of scalded wounds is the most important. First, the hair in and around the injured area of Shave it should be cut off, and the excessively long nails should be cut off. Healthy skin around the wound surface is washed with soapy water and clear water, and then scrubbed and disinfected with 0.1% bromo-geramine solution or 75% alcohol. The wound surface was washed with isotonic saline to remove foreign bodies and dirt on the wound surface. Protect small blisters from damage. Large blisters can be pumped out with an empty injection needle, or they can be sheared off at a low position to release the blisters. In case of broken blisters or serious pollution, the blister skin should be cut off, and the wound surface should be gently rolled with gauze, covered with a layer of liquid paraffin gauze or thin layer of vaseline gauze, plus multiple layers of absorbent gauze and cotton pad, and wrapped with bandage under uniform pressure. Scald can also be treated with bandaging therapy and exposure therapy.
Burns are often complicated by infection, so antibiotics should be added and tetanus antitoxin can be injected.

Mistakes after scalding

1. No pain after burn and scald means that the scald is not serious.

On the contrary, the less painful the wound feels, the more serious the injury. Because boiling water or open fire first damages the skin epidermis, then to the middle layer of the skin, and the pain nerve is damaged, you will not feel pain. Therefore, if you feel no pain at all, it means that the degree of burns may be very serious, and deep tissues have been damaged, and you should go to a specialist for treatment in time. If it hurts very much, then don’t worry too much, the injury is not as bad as your pain.

2. Apply soy sauce after burn and scald

Soy sauce cannot be applied after burns and scalds. Firstly, soy sauce contains salts, which will dehydrate and contract wound cells and aggravate the damage. Secondly, soy sauce is not sterile. If it is not treated further, it may cause infection. Thirdly, the dark brown color of soy sauce covered the wound surface, which affected doctors’ judgment on the depth of the wound surface. Therefore, after burns and scalds, use cold water Photographic processing instead of smearing other substances, such as salad oil, soy sauce, cooling oil, green ointment, etc. You should go to a specialized hospital and use truly effective drugs for burns and scalds under the guidance of doctors.

3. Picking out blisters after burns and scalds

It depends on the situation. The blisters formed by scalding with boiled water are sterile and the epidermis is not damaged. If the blisters are not large, they do not need to be torn. On the one hand, bacteria are not easy to invade and infection is not easy to occur because the integrity of the skin is maintained. On the other hand, skin preservation can protect the wound surface. However, if the blister is too large, the pain is obvious, and the protein may coagulate, then a sterile needle stick should be used to break the blister, squeeze out the water in the blister, and cover the blister skin as it is. A better method is to use biological dressing. At this time, the necrotic epidermis is completely removed. After cleaning and disinfection, the biological dressing is covered. This method greatly reduces the infection rate and greatly reduces the pain of dressing change.

4. Photographic processing wound with Chinese liquor after burn and scald

Many people think that liquor has the function of disinfection, so it will be widely used after injury. If the wound surface skin is not broken, the volatilization of alcohol in liquor will take away heat and have a certain cooling effect. If applied when the skin is broken, it will not benefit the wound. It will not only aggravate the pain, but also deepen the wound. Large-scale application may also cause alcoholism through absorption of the wound.

5. Ice immediately after burn and scald

High temperature can damage skin, and low temperature can also cause damage. After burns and scalds, the damaged skin has lost the protection of the epidermis and cannot be directly iced to avoid frostbite. Immediately flush with mild, flowing cold water for 30 minutes, or until it does not hurt.

6. Apply ointment immediately after burn and scald

Applying ointment will allow heat energy to coat the skin and continue to damage the skin. Flushing water immediately to cool down is the correct way to deal with it.

Conclusion: When scalds occur, many people panic and don’t know how to deal with them. Some people fall into the mistaken idea of dealing with scalds and eventually lead to infection. Friends who don’t know how to deal with them can look at the treatment methods in the article. Don’t let their scalds become more serious.